What are the Most Common Eye Disorders?

The eyes are our most important sensory organ for perceiving the environment, life, in short, the world. Therefore, how good our eye health is directly affects our life comfort and even changes our perspective on life. So what kind of diseases do we encounter in such an important sense organ? In this blog content, we will look at the most common eye disorders that will answer the question.

The Most Common Eye Disorders and Their Characteristics

The eye disorders we will talk about can occur for various reasons. Let’s state this and move on to common eye defects.

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In the condition, which usually occurs at an advanced age, the lens of the eye loses its transparency and becomes opaque and vision is blocked. In order to treat the disease that progresses over time, eye surgery is applied and an artificial lens is placed instead of the lens that has lost its transparency.

What are the Most Common Eye DisordersAstigmatism

Astigmatism, one of the common visual defects, is one of the common eye defects caused by irregular curvature of the lens of the eye. The irregular curvature of the lens causes the light to fail to focus on the retina due to improper refraction of the light and visual disturbances are experienced.

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In myopia, which is also one of the common eye defects, nearby objects can be seen clearly, while distant objects are blurred. We know that it is also called nearsightedness. In this disease, the shape of the eyeball causes the light rays to refract incorrectly and the images are focused in front of the retina. Thus, distant objects appear more blurred.

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It is a defect that we can see as the opposite of myopia. In hyperopia, the image of close objects is not clear. Here, the rays coming into the eye are focused behind the retina and thus, as the opposite of myopia, this time the problem of blurred vision in near vision occurs. Distance vision is normal.


Unlike refractive errors in the eye, glaucoma is another common but silent eye disease. In glaucoma, or eye pressure, the intraocular pressure rises and exerts pressure on the optic nerve, causing nerve damage over time. It is an important eye condition as it can even cause loss of vision due to nerve damage. Since it usually progresses insidiously, regular eye examinations are very important for glaucoma.

Dry Eye

Dry eye, one of the most common eye disorders, is one of the conditions that affect comfort in daily life. It occurs in cases such as insufficient quality of tears, insufficient amount of tears, blockage of the tear ducts due to various effects. Since the eye surface does not remain moist enough, burning and stinging sensation may occur in the eye and a reddened appearance may occur in the eye.


Conjunctivitis, also popularly known as red eye disease, is referred to as eye inflammation. It can occur due to infection in the part of the eye called conjunctiva or eye allergies.

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Yellow Spot Disease

In this disorder in the macula area of the retina, which is responsible for sharp vision, the receptor cells that detect light are damaged. As a result, people start to experience losses in the visual field. Blurred vision and dark vision problems begin to appear in the area being looked at.

These are the most common eye disorders. Of course, there are many eye disorders other than these. It is best to consult a specialist doctor when a person has a problem with his/her vision and to determine the underlying cause of the visual impairment. Determining the cause and choosing the best treatment for this cause can be called a task that falls to specialist physicians.

Assoc. Prof. Aylin Kılıç

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