What Causes Keratoconus?

Keratoconus is an eye disease that disrupts the structure of the cornea and can unfortunately progress. This disease can occur at a young age or in old age, in short, at any age. Regardless of the age at which it occurs, keratoconus can cause visual impairment and a decrease in visual quality, and if it progresses, it may require serious treatments such as corneal transplantation. From time to time, we share with you the most preferred methods for the treatment of the disease. But in this article, we will approach the disease from a different perspective and talk about the causes. So what causes keratoconus? Let’s look at the details.

What are the Causes of Keratoconus?

We need to make a warning from the beginning. Despite the scientific researches, the causes of keratoconus are not fully known. Unfortunately, we cannot know the exact cause, but it is thought that several factors play an important role in this disease. Let’s talk about these factors.

Genetic predisposition, although not confirmed

Although not completely proven, genetic factors are thought to play an active role in the development of keratoconus. Individuals with a family history of keratoconus have a higher risk of the disease. This suggests that the disease may have a genetic component. However, it is not yet clear exactly which genes are affected and how they are affected.

keratokonus neden olur

Changes in Cornea Structure

Structural changes in the cornea play an important role in the development of keratoconus. The cornea is the transparent tissue at the front of the eye that helps light enter the eye. Normally, the cornea has a regular shape. In keratoconus, however, the cornea becomes thinner and begins to take on a conical shape. The cause of these structural changes is not fully understood, but it is thought that certain mechanical and biochemical effects to which the cornea is exposed may play a role.

Intraocular Pressure Changes

Changes in intraocular pressure are thought to be involved in the development of keratoconus. Normally, intraocular pressure balances the fluid inside the eye. However, abnormal increases or decreases in intraocular pressure can affect the structural integrity of the cornea and contribute to the development of keratoconus.

keratokonus neden olur?Eye Irritation and Allergic Reactions

Eye irritation and allergic reactions can also play a role in the development of keratoconus. In particular, rubbing the eyes, wearing hard lenses or constantly scratching the eyes after exposure to allergens can cause changes in the structure of the cornea and increase the risk of keratoconus.


Keratoconus is an eye disease characterized by a conical shape of the cornea. A combination of all these various factors can play a role in the development of keratoconus. However, the exact cause of keratoconus is still poorly understood. Therefore, more research is needed to prevent or control the development and effects of the disease.

Assoc. Prof. Aylin Kılıç

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